June 28, 2022

Official Pratiyogita Kosh provide uppcs current affairs 2019 , these current affairs are present in pdf format . Monthly uppcs current affairs 2019 from Jan-Aug

UPPCS Current Affairs 2019

Official Pratiyogita Kosh : Important Monthly Current Affairs for upcoming exam of UPPCS 2019. Month wise Solved MCQ Multiple choice Question from January till August. month-wise-current-affairs-mcq

28 September 2019


The cooperation of States is seen as a major factor in the growth of the civil aviation sector. Why states have been reluctant so far? a Central subject.Very few States in India have active civil aviation departments. This is also due to the reason that States have had a passive role, invariably, having had to look up to the Central government for the development of airports and enhancing air connectivity.

Changing times:

In the last four years, the situation has changed considerably.Regional Connectivity Scheme, UdeDeshkaAamNaagrik (UDAN), has become a game changer as this flagship programme has a built-in mechanism to develop stakes of State governments in the growth of the sector.+Thirty States and Union Territories have already signed memoranda of understanding with the Central government. Policies of States and Centre are now being interlinked to make flying accessible and affordable.

Issues and challenges present:

States have very high rates of value-added tax (VAT) on ATF — sometimes as high as 25% — which has dampened the growth trajectory of civil aviation For any airline in India, the cost of Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) forms about 40% of the total operational cost.

Acquisition of land:

Land involves huge capital and is a scarce resource. Key policy interventions necessary to jump-start the aviation market: Relief on ATF airline industry is capital-intensive and works on very thin profit margins. relief on ATF is a major incentive for airlines to augment their operations. For States, it would be a notional revenue loss which can be offset by enhanced economic activities as a result of increased air connectivity to the region.

Development and management of airports:

many regional airports which can be developed by States on their own or in collaboration with the Airports Authority of India (AAI).

PPP model:

different models of public-private-partnership which can be leveraged to develop infrastructures. Create ‘no-frill airports’: Innovative models can be explored to create viable ‘no-frill airports’ These functional airports can open up regions and change the way people travel.States and the Central government can play a crucial role in supporting airlines to develop air services in the remote regions.Considering the infrastructural constraints and difficult terrain, small aircraft operators need to be encouraged.Areas which cannot be connected meaningfully by road or rail have to be linked by air States may converge their relevant schemes relating to tourism, health, and insurance for supporting air connectivity to supplement the objectives of regional connectivity.For this States need to create a conducive business environment to facilitate the strong aspirations of a burgeoning Indian middle class to fly at least once a year.


penetration of the aviation market in India stands at 7%.+There is potential to be among the global top three nations in terms of domestic and international passenger traffic. Developing airports, incentivising airlines and pooling resources of both the Union and State governments can accelerate the harmonized growth of the Indian civil aviation sector which would be equitable and inclusive.


The system of democracy invented in the West and exported to the rest is failing in the West. What’s the concern now? Elected governments are in office, but not in power. countries in Europe cannot form stable governments because the largest party does not command a majority Coalitions are unstable Parliaments are unable to pass laws US is the best example for this.

Democracy in India:

With a strong government at the Centre, Parliament has passed a slew of big laws recently. Yet failures of governance (and democracy) in India can be seen on the ground, in so-called ‘backward areas’ in the heartlands. What’s ailing our system today? Democracies need an architecture of institutions+Some institutions provide the vertical pillars. Other institutions provide the lateral binders that give strength and stability to the democratic structure.In the popular discourse about democracy, too much attention has been given to the vertical institutions required for people to elect their leaders, and too little to the lateral institutions required to create harmony amongst people. Issues with majoritarian democracy: a majoritarian democracy is that it is not designed to find solutions for complex problems with many points of view.A government with a majority, especially a large one, can become as authoritarian as a dictatorial one. It can deny minorities their rights for their views to be considered while framing laws and resolving contentious issues. A government elected by a majority can justify the exclusion of the minority. By doing so, a government reduces its own effectiveness. Even, the courts are not set up to find policy solutions to complex problems and must interpret the laws as written. What is needed to make our democracy a more effective one? When problems are complex, good governance requires effective methods for people’s participation.Referendums may increase people’s participation. Voters should be educated about what they are voting for. Healthy democracies need the following layers of institutions ,layer of constitutional institutions — parliaments, courts, etc. Social media has enlarged the public space enormously. public space and the media in which people must be free to speak up if they want to.

Need of the hour:

to strengthen the middle layer of institutions within democracies that lie between the open public sphere and formal government institutions.These are spaces where citizens with diverse views can listen to each other, and understand the whole system of which they are only parts.


It is imperative for India to build intermediate level, unofficial or semi-official institutions for non-partisan deliberation amongst concerned citizens.

Government must give more space for such institutions to form and operate.

When there is global despair about the ability of democratic institutions to deliver the benefits of good governance to citizens, this innovation must become India’s invaluable contribution to the history of democracy’s evolution. In India, the past decade saw as many as 1.58 lakh persons being infected by H1N1 virus and over 10,000 succumbing to it. Key facts: Maharashtra toll highest and Rajasthan worst hit in 2019.Unlike the temperate countries, where peak influenza activity is recorded in winters, in the tropical and sub-tropical countries, the primary peak of influenza activity is during the monsoon. In some places, influenza also peaks during winters and in some tropical countries, influenza sustains throughout the year.Overcrowding leads to increased transmission of airborne infection areas in the country may have a sparse population but with diagnostic testing facilities being set up, more cases are being detected. About H1N1 Virus: Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses.Transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans is uncommon +can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine influenza viruses.Symptoms are cough, fever, soar throat , stuffy or runny nose, headache, body ache etc. The sub-types are based on: host of the origin, Geographical origin, Strain in number, Year of isolation etc.

Spreading of Seasonal Influenza (H1N1):

Seasonal influenza viruses circulate and cause disease in humans every year tropical climates, disease tends to occur seasonally as well as regular virus spreading from person-top person through sneezing, coughing, or touching contaminated surfaces.+Seasonal influenza viruses evolve continuously, which means that people can get infected multiple+times throughout their lives. Diagnosis and treatment Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend real-time polymerase chain reaction as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Antiviral drugs are the mainstay of clinical treatment of swine influenza and can make the+illness milder and enable the patient to feel better faster

Prevention of swine influenza has 3 components:

vention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans.limited treatment options, high risk for secondary infection, and frequent need for intensive care of individuals with H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high-risk populations and public education are critical to control of swine influenza out breaks.


The first conference of Military Medicine for Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) Member States will be held in New Delhi on 12 – 13 September, 2019. will be the first Military co-operation event hosted by India, under the SCO Defence Co-operation Plan 2019-2020, after it became a SCO Member State in 2017

Purpose of conference:

best practices in the field of military medicine, build capacities and overcome common challenges Indian Armed Forces will also demonstrate the Rapid Action Medical Team and organise a visit for the delegates to the Army Research and Referral Hospital.


conference will be conducted by the IAF under the aegis of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS).


Member States will be represented by senior military medical practitioners. Dialogue Partners Nepal and Sri Lanka will also be sending their delegations to participate in the Conference.

FAKE NEWS BBC and some of the biggest names in journalism and technology have come together and announced series of measures to tackle “fake news”.

Google, Twitter and Facebook have helped devise the scheme. It follows criticism of big technology firms for failing to do enough to prevent the spread of “false news”.BBC convened a Trusted News Summit, bringing together senior figures from major global technology firms and publishing to help tackle the problem.The group drew-up new plans including:

Early warning system:

creating a system so that organisations+can alert each other rapidly when they discover disinformation that threatens human life or disrupts democracy during elections.

Media education:

joint online media education campaign to support and promote media education messages.

Voter information:

co-operation on civic information around elections, so there is a common way to explain how and where to vote.

Shared learning:

particularly around high-profile elections.

Fake news:

“news stories that have no factual basis but are presented a s news.” includes deliberate misinformation or hoaxes which are spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. According to Martina Chapman (Media Literacy Expert), the three M elements to fake news are: Mistrust, Misinformation and Manipulation. Fake news stories can deceive people by looking like trusted websites or using similar names and web addresses to reputable news organisations written and published often with sensationalist, exaggerated, or patently false headlines that grab attention.


Defence Minister Rajnath Singh paid an official visit to South Korea. Key highlights of the visit:

Concluded a military logistics agreement to extend logistical support to each other’s Navies India will be able to get assured logistic support when it operates in the Indo-Pacific in the ports of South Korea. MoU was signed to further defence educational exchanges. Two also formulated a forward-looking road map to take bilateral defence industry cooperation to the next level. Includes proposed areas of cooperation in land, aero and naval systems, R&D cooperation and collaboration in testing, certification and quality assurance. Invited the South Korean industry to explore the feasibility of local production of items, used in main weapon systems imported by defence public sector undertakings (PSUs). Stressed that South Korea’s ‘New Southern Policy’ and India’s ‘Act East Policy’ will provide a strong framework for future engagement and consolidation of Special Strategic Partnership.

TASK FORCE FOR NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PIPELINE The government has constituted a task force for drawing up National Infrastructure Pipeline of 100 lakh crore rupees from the fiscal year 2019-20 to 2024-25.


will be headed by Economic Affairs Secretary

Mandate of task force:

identify technically feasible and economically viable infrastructure projects that can be initiated in the current fiscal. Work on listing the projects that can be included in the pipeline for each of the remaining 5 years. Estimate annual infrastructure investment costs, guide the Ministries in identifying appropriate sources of financing and suggest measures to monitor the projects so that cost and time overrun is minimized.


Task Force will submit its Report on Pipeline by 31st of October for the fiscal year 2019-20 and on the indicative pipeline for fiscal years 2021- 25 by 31st of December this year. Background: National Infrastructure Pipeline would include greenfield and brownfield projects costing above 100 crore rupees also enables marketing of the pipeline of projects requiring private investment through the India Investment Grid and National Investment & Infrastructure Fund. PM highlighted that 100 lakh crore rupees would be invested in infrastructure over the next five years+will include social and economic infrastructure projects.


Union Minister of Food Processing Industries Harsimrat Badal inaugurated the First Mega Food Park of Telangana in Lakkampally at Village Lakkampally, Nandipet Mandal of Nizamabad District.


To give a major boost to the food processing sector by adding value and reducing food wastage at each stage of the supply chain with particular focus on perishables.

Parent ministry of scheme:

Ministry of Food Processing Industries

Implementing agencies:

implemented by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) which is a Body Corporate registered under the Companies Act. State Government, entities and Cooperatives are not required to form a separate SPV for implementation Funding: Government of India provides financial assistance upto Rs. 50 Crore per Mega Food Park project.

Cluster approach:

based on “Cluster” approach and+envisages creation of state of art support infrastructure in a well-defined agri -horticultural zone for setting up of modern food processing units along with well-established supply chain.

Project Components:

consists of supply chain infrastructure including+collection centres,primary processing centres (PPC),central processing centres (CPC),cold chain andaround 30-35 fully developed plots for entrepreneurs to set up food processing units.

Primary Processing Centres (PPC):

have facility for cleaning, grading, sorting and packing facilities, dry warehouses, specialized cold stores etc.

Central Processing Centres (CPC):

facilities like Testing Laboratory, Cleaning, Grading, Sorting and Packing Facilities, Dry Warehouses, specialized storage facilities etc.


India’s only successfully separated craniopagus twins from Odisha — Jagga and Balia — were discharged from the All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), two years after they were admitted, operated and started on rehabilitation at the hospital .were born with fused brain and skull, a condition known as craniopagus Health Minister Harsh Vardhan said that this is the rarest of the rare surgery and it can be called ‘AIIMS Delhi Jagga and Balia craniopagus surgery’. this was the first successful craniopagus conjoined twin separation surgery from India wherein both the children had survived.Worldwide only 10-15 children have survived after surgical separation of this condition in the last 50 years.

Conjoined twins:Meaning:

born physically connected to each other. +may also share one or more internal organs.


may be joined at any of these sites – Craniopagus twins+joined at the back, top or side of the head, but not the face.+share a portion of the skull.But their brains are usually separate, though they may share some brain tissue.Thoracopagus twins joined face to face at the chest.

Omphalopagus twins:

joined near the bellybutton (Abdomen)

Pygopagus twins:

joined back to back at the base of the spine and the buttocks.

Rachipagus twins:

joined back to back along the length of the spine Ischiopagus twins are joined at the pelvis, either face to face or end to end.Cause: Conjoined twins develop when an early embryo only partially separates to form two individuals. Although two fetuses will develop from this embryo, they will remain physically connected— most often at the chest, abdomen or pelvis.


many conjoined twins are not alive when born (stillborn) or die shortly after birth, advances in surgery and technology have improved survival rates.
UPPCS Current Affairs 2019

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